Written by Kevin Folta
Over on Huffington Post’s Food for Thought Blog they have offered their bandwidth to a series of voices to expand on the epic science narrative Farmed and Dangerous. “Farmed” is a slick and cute, yet intellectually simple and unsatisfying indictment of the American farming system.
One of the guest bloggers is Robyn O’Brien. I like Robyn, I’ve spoken with her personally and we share an email now and then. We’re on precisely the same page about issues like better nutrition and healthier eating especially for kids. Where we part ways is on her less-than-scientific treatment of transgenic technology. Robyn’s 2/20/14 submission, “Nine Dirty Little Secrets About GMOs” does not disappoint, as it provides fertile misinformation to fuel the non-critical thinker’s fear of science, along with ample opportunity for me to rope in the insanity with a lasso of evidence.
Let’s look at those dirty little secrets, presented below in bold. They are neither dirty, little or secrets, and most don’t just apply to GMOs! I will address them one by one.
1. Shh, don’t mention the food waste. Robyn contends that the huge loss of food to waste is one of the dirty secrets of GMOs. Once again, I find myself on the same page as Robyn in that food waste is a massive issue- not just in the home, but throughout the supply chain. Her statistics reinforce the magnitude of the issue.
What she fails to mention is that the molecular mechanisms of food deterioration and decay are well understood, and are clear targets for GM technology. One of the greatest advances from GM will come when shelf life can be extended. Why hasn’t it happened? Cost, time and public backlash keep companies from installing waste-crushing genes in tomato, cucumber, and dozens of other fruits and vegetables. A non-browning potato and apple, using native genes, are inching through deregulation now—yet opponents would rather see them in landfills. Approximately 25% of potatoes go to waste or cattle feed because of brown spots, and a significant amount of apples are lost too- consumers just won’t buy something with a blemish, and once in the home, a little brown is a one-way-trip into the landfill. Yes, don’t mention the food waste because GMO has a solution. That’s not a dirty little secret, that’s an inconvenient truth.
2. Forget Big Tobacco, it’s Big Razor’s playbook: Here Robyn plays the old card that seed companies get farmers “hooked” on technology that sells farmers seeds only to force them to buy the herbicides required (namely glyphosate) to get the value from the trait. I don’t know if she spends much time with farmers, and I’m guessing not. Any farmer contemplating use of an herbicide resistance trait will carefully calculate the cost of the seed, and the cost to use the trait, including the chemical, its application, and the fuel and labor involved. They likely trial the trait in limited acreage and make informed decisions about its fit with their bottom line. These are sophisticated people we’re dealing with here. In reality, they buy the trait and the associated chemical because it works, it saves them money. Yes, herbicide application has increased slightly overall (mostly due to soybeans), but a relatively innocuous chemical has replaced others that had more environmental impact and were less effective (See Duke et al., 2012, J. Ag & Food Chemistry; Fig 2).
3. EPA now regulates this genetically engineered corn as a pesticide. Robyn likes to play this one because of the fear it creates. Note, this is the EPA, the organization that deals with environmental concerns. Yes, they consider Bt corn a pesticide because it has activity against larvae of certain moths and butterflies. It could have ecological impact. It is therefore examined as a pesticide. This is the oversight and regulation that people like her claim does not exist. Those of us that think about the science know that the Bt protein has specific mechanisms of action against certain caterpillars and is not effective against non-target animals. It has no effects on humans. It is appropriate that its environmental impacts are considered.
4. Pre-treated seeds doused in chemicals: Robyn introduces the idea of an “accelerating agent” something I never heard about. A google search shows that it appears in her article, not too many other places. Semiotic Entropy? Perhaps. The seeds “doused in chemicals” are likely seeds with dustings of fungicides or insecticide powders that keep them from becoming infected during storage and fostering happy germination upon planting. It is a little powder on each seed- a treatment that stops the need to apply insecticide after planting. This per-seed treatment saves labor, fuel, and of course, chemicals because they are selectively added to the seed itself where they are needed rather than surrounding soils. Again, this is also a treatment of conventional hybrids and is not just a GM issue.
5. Pouring on the Pesticides: Her claim is that “overall pesticide” use has increased, which if you count “pesticides” as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides together is probably true because of the increased use of glyphosate, but this obscures the actual impact on the environment. Insecticide use has been cut 50-75% on GM corn and cotton (Nat’l Acad Sci, 2010). That’s a major excellent environmental victory, yet sure makes the technology seem like it works and is environmentally helpful, so insecticides get lumped in with glyphosate under “pesticides”. Of course, anytime there is reference to chemicals they are “poured on” or “doused”, which flies in the face of the finely tuned spray apparatus that makes cost-saving conservative applications. Again, farmers are pretty sharp.
6. Patent the Chemicals as a Drug: I’m not sure where she’s going here. She talks of the “increasingly controversial weed killer glyphosate” which is only controversial because she and others like her are creating controversy. Not much controversy in the peer-reviewed literature or among farmers. It also has been off patent since 2000 or so. Again, not such a dirty little secret, at least to those of us paying attention.
7. Patents protect intellectual property: Here the specter of patented crops and inability to perform research on them is raised. You’ll find a tenuous, unsupported tie between the technology and autism/pediatric cancer, even though such associations have not been demonstrated. There then is the ruse that a researcher would have to ask for permission to do the tests (which anyone that can buy food at the grocery store can do—Monsanto has no jurisdiction over your Fritos) and evokes the conspiracy of companies concealing information, because obviously the role of a seed company is to make products that kill the people that use them.
8. Technology Stewardship Agreements lock farmers into contracts: Before you read my thoughts, read her paragraph. I’ll wait. Seriously. Go ahead. Read it. After you compose yourself from laughing… there’s a story of an unnamed Iowa farmer that apparently had to buy Monsanto products for life and was sued when he didn’t keep using them. I’d love to see some confirmation of this story, since no one has been able to demonstrate that Monsanto sues farmers who were not saving their seeds. Sounds like an activist myth to me! Farmers would never sign that agreement, and would not support a company that had such policies. This is the first I’ve heard of this “lifetime contract” but now that it is out there it is surely to become part of the anti-GM misinformation meme.
9. Labels mean liability: Robyn says that if it is not labeled as GMO, then there’s no way to demonstrate that the foods cause harm. Another supreme cop out. Of course, she forgets that scientists could do carefully controlled, reproducible experiments. That’s the best way to demonstrate that the products are harmful. But more importantly, if the food is harmful, then people will be harmed. The Jack-in-the-Box hamburger wasn’t labeled “CONTAINS E. coli OH157”. The organic spinach didn’t have a label that said, “Warning Contains Salmonella”. If food makes people sick we know, and we know fast.
The Nine Dirty Secrets of GMOs are surprisingly lazy and uninspired, especially because only a minority are even specific to GMOs. When we take a step back, examine the cherry picked data, her carefully worded statements, look at the big picture, these points are easily diffused. It is sad that Huffington Post is giving a venue to such simplistic analysis, words placed to raise fear and mistrust of science, rather than educate about a good, proven tool for improving food.
Written by Guest Expert
Kevin Folta has studied biology and agricultural biotechnology for over thirty years. His research examines the role of light in controlling plant traits, especially those relevant to agriculture. His group is known for using innovative genomics approaches to identify genes associated with fruit quality, especially flavors and aromas.
Re 1. Shh, don’t mention the food waste
You forget that also – already available and much more widely used – Bt crops help reduce food waste: By better protecting crops from insect damage, further down the supply-chain there are fewer crops that have to be thrown out because they got mouldy (where the crops were damaged). And, as is also the case e.g. with virus-resistant papaya, there are also lower pre-harvest losses…
Re 3. EPA now regulates this genetically engineered corn as a pesticide
I always like to point out that Bt is widely used in organic agriculture and that, therefore, at least the toxin as such can hardly be considered evil by those favouring that very form of agriculture… (Which would leave them only with the argument that the process of genetic engineering as such somehow does horrible things – that nobody could conclusively prove yet).
Re 8. Technology Stewardship Agreements lock farmers into contracts
It’s also good to point out that stewardship agreements exist for conventional seeds, too! (And one could point out that e.g. organic hybrid seed also forces farmers to buy new seed every year…)
Wow. Thanks for writing this. I read the original article and thought my mind would explode from all the poorly sourced misinformation. As a scientist, it’s tremendously difficult to convince people that GMOs have no detrimental effects on our health.
I want to prod your 9th point a bit. You say “If food makes people sick we know, and we know fast.” Is this really a fair statement? While this may be true most of the time, there must be a not-insignificant amount of exceptions, right? For example, off the top of my head, doesn’t mad cow disease take months/years to manifest?
As I understand it, your point is that if there are any bad effects, we will know of them quickly, and can thereby fix them quickly (through recalls or whatnot). But I don’t think that point really stands. If I am misinterpreting, please correct me.
The only way GMO’s cause food waste is by making food less expensive. The less expensive something is, the greater the chance that X amount left is not worth the effort of saving.
For #9, the HuffPost article has a link to a story that names the farmer. A google search lead me to this PDF titled “Seed Piracy Local Summary”. Some of the text it contains reads:
“Monsanto is committed to enhancing grower
productivity and profitability by bringing new seed
technologies to market. As such, Monsanto patents
seed and seed traits to protect its intellectual
property. When growers purchase patented seed,
they agree to respect the property rights held by the
seed and trait providers. Unfortunately, Monsanto
has had to pursue several Seed Piracy Matters in
IOWA in the last couple of years (see right column).
In addition, Monsanto filed litigation on two seed
dealers, one against Mark Hill and Hill Seed
Company and a second suit against S.B.D., Inc.
(dba Scott’s Quality Seeds and Scott McAllister).
Both Hill and S.B.D. have been enjoined from
making, using, selling, transferring or offering to sell
or transfer any Roundup Ready soybean,
Roundup Ready corn or YieldGard corn seed. ”
The PDF appears to be from Monsanto, but I cannot confirm.
Has anyone ever tried submitting posts from Biology Fortified to the Huff Post Food for Thought? I ask because I saw this text in a box, top right of the referenced post, “To be featured, please email email@example.com.”
This would be a good one to try to get in there.
#4: “accelerating agent”
I think Robyn mispelled the word «Acceleron», a seed treatment selled by Monsanto/Dekalb.
Ughh Kimbrell’s post on “Agent Orange” crops is disgusting.
If I recall correctly Huffington Post doesn’t really have a solid record on science reporting.
Her 2nd point is actually worse than Kevin Folta makes it seem. The farmer can buy glyphosate from anywhere right? So there is no point in selling the seed for a discount.
Interesting. The HuffPo blogger in question seems to believe GMO foods (and Der Nasty Food Chemicals)cause autism, allergies etc. http://www.allergykids.com/about-us/about-us/
Good work on this article refuting / pointing out the idiocy of Robyn’s 9 nonsensical “points.” Sad thing is that most Americans are so dumb that her fear based rant impacts them. 26% of America doesn’t know Earth revolves around the Sun yet we want to use science to fight the scare tactics? Won’t happen.
There are many factors to using chemicals. Taking from my narrow experience, but first hand knowledge, insecticides and fungicides are almost always sprayed right on the crops to minimize damage to the crop.
Herbicides are used in many other areas, including preparing the field for planting.
In addition, the price of glyphosate is about 1/4 of what it used to be before it went off patent, and in real dollars maybe even 10% of what the price it used to be. (maybe someone can figure that one out? 🙂
My narrow experience is that applications to actual crops have GMO’s having less herbicide, and far safer herbicide applied to them.
But that is just my experience.
With respect to ‘Mike’s point, above: Yes, the incubation or latent period from exposure to an infectious agent or toxin, to when any adverse health effects are detectable, can be quite long. Prion diseases like Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (causing variant Creutzfeld-Jacob disease in people) are one good example, with latent periods in humans in the range of several years. Most food poisonings (due to infectious agents or the toxins they make) do have incubation periods in the range of a few days to weeks, but if the concern was for cancer, for example, the latent period might be in the range of many years. Of course there would need to be some biological plausibility to warrant looking directly for such human health effects. That’s why experimental work with animal models is so important, to identify biologically plausible areas for investigation in humans; though even there, there should be some biological reason to go to the expense of doing experiments on animals.
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